Hairpin Motor Leads the New Energy Vehicle Drive Technology Revolution
Hairpin motors can be traced back to traditional wound-rotor motors. With the rise of new energy vehicles, the performance and volume requirements of motors are getting higher and higher, and traditional wound-rotor motors have gradually revealed some limitations, such as larger volume, heavier weight, and lower efficiency. In order to overcome these problems, hairpin motors came into being.
In electric vehicles, as one of the key driving devices, the hairpin motor plays a vital role. It has undergone several stages of evolution and improvement, and now it presents strong performance and excellent features.
1. Improvement of coil winding. Traditional wound-rotor motors use copper wire windings, while hairpin motors use flat shape coils and windings, making the motor more compact and lighter, while also improving the efficiency and power density of the motor. This change in structural design enables the motor to better adapt to the needs of new energy vehicles, and has achieved significant improvements in performance and efficiency.
2. Advances in Materials and Techniques. With the advancement of material science and manufacturing technology, hairpin motors use advanced materials, such as high-performance magnetic materials, high-temperature-resistant insulating materials, and precision processing technology. The introduction of these innovative technologies and materials has improved the magnetic field strength and energy conversion efficiency of hairpin motors.
3. The Progress of the Control System. The hairpin motor control system adopts advanced control algorithms and high-performance power electronic devices, which can realize precise control and adjustment of hairpin motors. At the same time, the intelligent control system can also monitor the working status and performance indicators of the hairpin motor in real time, provide fault diagnosis and early warning functions, and ensure the safe operation of the hairpin motor.
The evolution of hairpin motors is a product of technological progress and market demands. Through continuous innovation and improvement, hairpin motors have shown strong potential and development space in the field of new energy vehicles. In the future, with the continuous advancement of technology and the growth of market demand, it is believed that the new energy hairpin motor will continue to evolve and bring more innovations and breakthroughs to the electric vehicle industry.
From November 22 to 24, 2023, a motor industry event will be held at the Shanghai New International Expo Center, which is the much-anticipated "2023 China International 27th Small Motor Technology, Magnetic Materials Technical Seminar and Exhibition".
As one of the core parts of new energy vehicles, the electric drive system has an important impact on the performance of new energy vehicles, and has important significance for the power, economy, comfort, safety, reliability, and durability of new energy vehicles. In addition, in terms of industry needs, low cost, miniaturization, and intelligence are the main trends. The electric drive system of an electric vehicle is mainly composed of four parts: drive motor, transmission, power converter and controller. The drive motor is the core of the electric drive system, and its performance and efficiency directly affect the performance of electric vehicles. The size and weight of the drive motor and transmission will also affect the overall efficiency of the vehicle. Power converters and controllers can help electric vehicles operate safely and reliably.
In the long term, the trend of flat wire motors is highly certain. In the first half of 2021, the penetration rate of flat wire motors among the top 15 vehicle models in terms of sales reached 28%, compared to just 14% in 2020. It is anticipated that by 2025, the proportion of flat wire motors in the drive systems of new energy vehicles will exceed 80%.
X-Pin motor technology allows for a reduction in the height of the linear segment at the end of the motor while maintaining a high slot fill factor. This results in a shorter overall motor length, saving copper wire usage and improving motor efficiency, thus achieving miniaturization.
In recent years, the market penetration of new energy passenger vehicles has continued to rise. Due to the high demand, existing cylindrical-wire motors have become insufficient in meeting the performance requirements of electric vehicle propulsion. Therefore, the substitution of flat-wire motors for cylindrical-wire motors is a highly certain trend for the future. Motor manufacturers are actively seeking high-capacity, high-quality production processes to meet market demands, with ongoing optimization and innovation in the manufacturing processes of flat-wire motor stators.
As is well known, the energy conversion efficiency of electric motors is around 90%, meaning that losses account for approximately 10%. Within the energy losses of a motor, copper loss, which is the heat generated by the current passing through the stator winding, constitutes about two-thirds of these losses.By adopting flat wire motors, the round wire windings are replaced with flat wire windings, increasing the amount of copper per unit area on the stator. This increases the copper fill factor to 20% to 30%, meaning more copper is packed into the stator slots. This effectively reduces winding resistance, and the lower the resistance of the winding, the higher the electrical efficiency. Consequently, it reduces copper losses.